JSNS style-sheet

Please submit articles, varia pieces and reviews in Word files (.doc or .docx).

Please follow the Harvard or Author-Year system of referencing; see under Referencing.

Authors are encouraged to aim for consistency in usage.

Abbreviations(For early sources, please refer to Scottish Historical Review 42: ‘List of Abbreviated Titles of the Printed Sources of Scottish History to 1560,  Supplement to the Scottish Historical Review October 1963’, 1963, pp. i-xxxii.)   1 : 10,000; 1 inch : 1 mile 1st pub. [first published] 5ft 6in 6km 6m [metres/miles – spell in full if unclear, e.g. 10km (six miles)] App. [Appendix] ch., chs [chapter(s)] col., cols [column(s)] d. [died] ed. [edited by] ed., eds [editor(s)] edn [edition] exx. [examples] Fig., Figs [Figure(s)] fl., floruit fo, fos [folio(s)] gen. ed., gen. eds [general editor(s)] i.e., e.g., cf., viz. ibid. impr. [impression] loc. cit. m., f., nt./masc., fem., neut. [masculine, feminine, neuter] No., Nos. [e.g. of a journal, Nos. 2–3]] no., nos. [e.g. RMS viii, no. 3] nom., acc., gen., dat., voc. pers. comm. [personal communication] PhD, MLitt, MA, BA etc. pl./plur. [plural] Pt, Pts [Part, e.g. of a journal: Pt 2] repr. [reprint/reprinted] rev. [revised] s.a., s.aa. s.n., s.nn. s.v., s.vv. sg./sing. [singular] transl. [translator; translated by] vol., vols [e.g. 7 vols] Vol., Vols [e.g. Vol. 2]   Bret. [Breton] Brit. [British] Corn. [Cornish] ECelt. [Early Celtic] Eng. [English] G [Gaelic] Gaul. [Gaulish] Ir. [Irish] ME [Middle English] MG, MIr. [Middle Gaelic, Middle Irish] MidW [Middle Welsh] ModIr. [Modern Irish] ModW [Modern Welsh] MS, MSS Mx [Manx] OE, OG, OIr. [Old English, Old Gaelic, Old Irish] PrIE [Primitive Indo-European] Scand. [Scandinavian] ScG [Scottish Gaelic] Scots (i.e. unabbreviated) W [Welsh]  
Apostrophethe boy’s parents; Jones’s article the boys’ parents  
Comma  Do not use the Oxford or serial comma except where clarity recommends it: the serial comma is redundant where it reduplicates the function of a present conjunction: take knives, forks, and spoons > take knives, forks and spoons; including the abbreviation etc. as this contains a conjunction: take knives, forks, etc. > take knives, forks etc.   The serial comma may be useful in the case of multi-word items, e.g. yellow and red, blue and red, blue and yellow. Semi-colons are more distinct separators than commas in the case of lists of more complex phrases or sentences, e.g. as thin as a rake; as quiet as a mouse; as red as an India rubber ball.   Do not use commas when supplying meanings, e.g. ScG allt ‘stream’ [not ScG allt, ‘stream’]; Comar nan Allt ‘the confluence of the streams’.  
Dates (See also Numerals)first century … ninth century tenth century etc. eighteenth-century focus early nineteenth century mid-nineteenth century late nineteenth century late nineteenth-century focus   12 March 1213 1768–1769 1920s 1920s–1930s c.1920 1530 × 1535
FormattingJustify left-hand margin only.   Use extra spacing between paragraphs to show new paragraphs, rather than indentation.   No punctuation is necessary after bullet points.   Use the format (a), (b), (c), rather than a), b), c).   In titles, use a capital letter after a colon only if one is used in the original.   In general, do not use bold type.   (See also under italicisation.)  
Hyphens, rules, dashesPlease use a hyphen (-) in the following: name-form, head-word, head-name, loan-name, loan-word, transfer-name, by-name, baile-names etc., place-name (but not in settlement name etc.).   mid-nineteenth century the North-East, North-East Scotland, the North-East of Scotland on-line resource   Please do not hyphenate: grid reference   Use an en-rule (–) between numbers, e.g. 1939–45; 54–57; 243–50.   Use an en-rule surrounded by spaces as a punctuation mark to indicate an insertion or interruption in the main sentence, e.g. ‘old forms – none are older than the fifteenth century – sometimes have an additional d.’   (The en-rule is half the length of the em-rule (—) and can be found in MS Word under INSERT/SYMBOL, or use Ctrl + minus on the numeric keypad.)  
IllustrationsThe resolution of pictures, maps, figures etc. should be 72dpi, should have an appropriate heading or caption and an attribution where relevant. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain any permissions necessary.  
Italicisation  Please italicise the following: (a) words and phrases under discussion, e.g. ‘with the element hill’. (b) words and phrases not of the medium language (and which are not quotes, for which see under Quotes), e.g. (c) recte, sic, fl., floruit, vel. sim., et passim (d) early forms of place-names   Do not italicise: loc. cit. ibid. c. [circa]   Do not use italicisation (or bold) for emphasis; allow writing style and sentence structure to convey emphasis.  
JustificationUse left-hand justification only, please.  
LanguageAlthough JSNS is an English publication, it welcomes articles written in Scottish Gaelic or in Scots, in which case articles should be accompanied by an English summary.  
NotesThese should normally be supplied as footnotes.  
Numerals (See also Dates)one, two … nine first, second … ninth ten, eleven … nineteen tenth, eleventh etc.   In references: 1st edn 2nd reprint   Also: 5ft 6in 6km 6m 6 inch : 1 mile 1 : 10,000 2 vols Vol. 7, No. 3, Pt 2 note 9 [also n 9]  
Quotes and translationsUse ‘…’ for primary quotation marks. Use “…” for secondary quotation marks.   Use quotation marks for quotes (even in languages other the one being written in, unless otherwise marked (e.g. by indentation or italicisation).   Use quotation marks for any translation given.   Where both quote and its translation are given, it is preferrable to give the original first and the translation following in brackets.  
Page numbersInsert these, please.  
ParagraphsPlease use extra line spacing, rather than indentation, to mark new paragraphs.  
ReferencesUse the Harvard system, e.g. Watson 1906, 33; Joyce 1893 II, 285–96   Bibliographical references:   Other, A.N. and A.N. Other, with A.N. Other (eds), 2007, ‘title of article’, Title of Publication, 2nd series, Vol. 2, No. 3, Pt 1, 2 vols, ed. A.N. Other and A.N. Other, transl. A.N. Other (Edinburgh: publisher; 2nd edn), 111–25. (Edinburgh: publisher; 2nd edn with minor changes; 1st pub. 1902), 111–25.   Titles: Written according to original [see also under Upper/lower case initials]   Web sites: – accessed 1/1/07   Theses etc: Other, A.N., 2007, ‘Title of thesis’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.   Short references: (p. 30) [otherwise page numbers are usually introduced by a comma, as follows:] Watson 1930, 178–79 Watson 1930, 178, 185; Watson 1930, 178 and 185 Watson 1930, 178 note Marwick 1929, 1, under A RMS viii no. 7 RMS viii no. 7, 78 Loc. cit./ loc. cit. Ibid../ ibid. Ibid., 35/ ibid., 35 [Do not use op. cit.] Taylor, forthcoming  
Spaces  Please use spaces (shown by underscore ‘_’) in the following:   1_:_10,000 _…_ _ –_ loc. _cit. Vol. _3, No. _3, Pt_3, App. 1. Fig. 1 1530_×_1535 A._M._M._Duncan   No space in:   c.1920 500AD 1768–1769 5ft 6km 6m  
Spelling  realise, minimise, recognise etc. index, indexes; appendix, appendixes  
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Upper/lower case initialsPoints of the compass in names of recognised geographical areas, e.g. the North-East, North-East Scotland, the North-East of Scotland; but west Fife etc.   General Scots (High) Middle Ages Q-Celtic, P-Celtic   Verbs derived from the names of languages and their derivations do not have initial capitals: gaelicisation, latinisation etc.   Titles of book and journals: Titles should be cited as per original; if the original title is shown entirely in upper case, then use lower case except for initial capitals for nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs only.   After colons in titles: in titles, use a capital letter after a colon only if one is used in the original.   Vol. 3, No. 3, Pt 3   note 7  

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