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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines


Aiste uses an adapted form of the MHRA Style Guide, to which authors should refer for fuller details; it can be accessed at:

The following notes and examples are intended as a convenient reference guide, which summarise the main points and outline the main departures from the MHRA Style Guide. 

1          REFERENCES 

The Author-Date system is used, e.g. (Byrne 2000, 22−23) within the text and footnotes should only be used for further information where completely necessary. Within the ‘further information footnotes’ the author-date system should also be used. Please note that it is footnotes not end-notes which are used for this additional information.


All numerals (with the exception of relevant page numbers) should be Arabic.

In numeric ranges falling within the same hundred the last two figures should be given, e.g.

            15−18, 24−29, 52−58, 102−08, 1966−69


Main words in titles of books and journals should be initial-capitalised; in the titles of articles, and essays in collections, capitalisation should be used only for the first word of the main title and subtitles, and in proper nouns.


Unlike MHRA, the names of publishers should not be included in the bibliography.


The abbreviations ‘pp.’ and ‘p.’ should be omitted for page ranges and pages in books as well as journals, unless necessary for clarification.


Author surname and year of publication, followed by comma and page reference, all in parentheses:

(Byrne 2000, 22−23).

Multiple references should be separated by a semi-colon within the same parentheses:

(Thomson 1974, 56; Dymock 2011, 90−91).

When the author’s name is clearly indicated in the text there is no need to repeat this in the reference; thus:

In his groundbreaking study, Thomson (1974, 56) argues for a re-evaluation [. . .].                        .

If two or more works by the same author have the same publication date, they should be arranged in alphabetical order of title and lettering should be included after the date to distinguish them as follows:

            (Thomson 1974a) . . . (Thomson 1974b)

If two sources by different authors share the same surname and year of publication, initials should be included, e.g.

            (Thomson, D. S. 1970) . . . (Thomson, R. L. 1970)


A full alphabetical bibliography should be provided. Journal titles should be given in full in bibliographical entries (Scottish Gaelic Studies, etc.).

Entries in the bibliography should indicate year of publication immediately after the author’s name. Forms of proper names should be determined by the source text, not by language of the submitted article, and variant forms of authorial names (MacGill-Eain, Somhairle / Maclean, Sorley; MacThòmais, Ruaraidh / Thomson, D. S.) should be listed separately in the alphabetical list. Thus only the separative phrase ‘in’ / ‘ann an’ (for articles in books) should be determined by the language of the Aiste article. Publications containing three or more authors or editors should list the first author followed by ‘et al.’.

Black, Ronald et al. (eds). 1999. Celtic Connections: Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Celtic Studies, East Linton

Dymock, Emma. 2011. ‘“Cas agam anns a’ bhoglaich agus cas air a’ Chuilithionn”: Unstable borders in the poetry of Sorley MacLean’, in Emma Dymock and Wilson McLeod (eds), Lainnir a’ Bhùirn / The Gleaming Water: Essays on Modern Gaelic Literature, Edinburgh, 87−102

Kidd, Sheila M. 2006. ‘The forgotten first: John MacCormick’s Dùn-Aluinn’, Scottish Gaelic Studies 22, 197−22

MacArthur, Mairi E. 1990. Iona: The Living Memory of a Crofting Community, Edinburgh

Meek, Dòmhnall Eachann. 2006. ‘Searmoin às na Seisgeannan’, Gath 5 (An Samhradh), 14−19

Muhr, Kay. 2016. ‘Bealtaine in Irish and Scottish place-names’, The Journal of Scottish Name Studies 10, 89−126

Ó Baoill, Colm (ed.). 1972. Poems and Songs by Sileas MacDonald c. 1660−c. 1729, Edinburgh

Ó Baoill, Colm (ed.) and Bateman, Meg (trans.). 1994. Gàir nan Clàrsach: The Harps’ Cry, Edinburgh

Avoid op. cit. and loc. cit. Abbreviations such as ‘e.g.’, ‘i.e.’, ‘cf.’ ‘ibid.’, ‘idem’, ‘eadem’ which occur at the beginning of footnotes should not be capitalised. Use ibid. only for reference to the immediately previous referenced item. Please note that these Latin abbreviations, following MHRA, are not italicised. The one exception is circa and c. which should be italicised, again following MHRA guidance.

Articles submitted in Gaelic should use:

deas. (for both deasaiche and deasaichean / ed. / eds)

ann an / am (for in)

Articles submitted in Irish should use:

eag. (for both eagarthóir and eagarthóirí / ed. / eds)

in (for in)

Forms of proper names and place of publication names for author-date references and the bibliography should be determined by the source text, not by language of the submitted article.


In Gaelic, Gaelic Orthographic Conventions 2005 (GOC) and recent addenda must be used for main text: see However titles of books and articles, and quotes from earlier works should not normally be standardised to GOC. Accents should be used in upper-case as well as lower-case.

In English, both British and American practices will be accepted, though styles should not be mixed within the same article. Similarly, where variants exist (e.g. -ize/-ise verbs), spellings should be consistent within the same article.

There should be no full stop within capitalised abbreviations (SSPCK, etc.) or after contractions which retain the final letter (St, Mr, Mgr, Dr) but a stop should be used after other contractions: ed., Rev., Esq., Oll.

We would like to encourage authors to normalise use of the Gaelic/Irish forms of personal names but ask that you also include the English form on the first occasion you mention an individual, e.g. ‘The poetry of Catrìona NicPhàidein (Catherine Macfadyen, 1819–1913) is...’

And subsequently, in this instance, NicPhàidein.


Use single quotation-marks; use double within single for quotations within quotations.

If over forty words of prose or over two lines of verse, quotations should be indented on both sides and set off as a paragraph with a space above and below, and without quotation marks.

Omissions within quotations should be marked by an ellipsis: […]. Ellipses are not necessary at the beginning or end of quotations.

Quotations should not be italicised, even if in a language other than that of the article. However, as below, accompanying translations should be italicised.

Translation of original language quotations: an article submitted in English should include a translation of quotations in any other language.


Italics should only be used

1) for the title of a published volume

2) for a word/phrase used in the writer’s own prose which is not in language of article, e.g. ‘Chan eil raison d’être aca [. . .]’, ‘When using the còmhradh mode [. . .]’ 

3) for the translation of a quotation (translation of verse should be given in continuous prose with line breaks indicated)

4) for second and third level subheadings.

Song/poem/short story titles

Titles of songs, poems and short stories should be placed within single quotation marks and italics should not be used. 

3          HEADINGS

Authors wishing to include headings in their article are asked to observe the following formatting:

1st level (main headings): centralised small caps, capitalised initials

2nd level (subheadings): centralised italics, capitalised initials

3rd level (sub subheadings): left-aligned italics, capitalised initial in first word or proper nouns only.  


All illustrations, figures, and tables should be placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end. All tables and illustrations should be numbered sequentially (e.g. Image 1, Image 2; Table 1, Table 2). Absolute minimum resolution for images is 72 dpi (higher resolution is recommended if possible). It is up to the author to secure permission to publish images and to pay any associated fees. The journal itself cannot fund these costs.


Articles in English should be provided with an abstract in English of approximately 150–200 words in length. If the article is written in Gaelic, we ask contributors to provide an abstract in Gaelic plus one in English (not necessarily a direct translation), each approximately 150−200 words long.

Authors are also encouraged to suggest a maximum of 5–8 keywords (and ‘key phrases’ of 2–3 words) likely to assist target readers in identifying the article as relevant to their interests using search engines. There is no need to duplicate words in the title, as these will register on search engines in any case. In their choice of keywords, we encourage authors to focus on the main topic of their contributions, and to be as specific as possible. One way to test the effectiveness of keywords is to try them out in a Google search to see if the results are as useful as expected. Using your keywords in your abstract boosts the searchability of your article, as does choosing a title/sub-title which is specific and descriptive.

6          FILE FORMAT 

Text should be: Single-spaced, 12-point font, employ italics rather than underlining (except for URL addresses). Any images should be integrated at the appropriate places. Where possible the text should be provided as a Microsoft Word document but we can also accept files in the following formats: OpenOffice or RTF file format. If this presents any problems, please contact us.

 7          SUBMISSION

Contributors should upload their article to the relevant portal on the CLOG website.

Contributors will be asked to register as a user which will give them access to their dashboard where they will be able to follow the progress of their contribution and make any requested revisions, check galley proofs, etc. In addition to uploading the text file (including any images at the appropriate places), contributors will be asked to provide the chapter’s title (and subtitle if relevant) plus an abstract and keywords (words or phrases) to assist searches (see 5 above).


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